Hanoi is located in the Red River Delta, in the center of North Vietnam. It is encompassed by Thai Nguyen to the north, Vinh Phuc and Ha Tay provinces to the west and south, Bac Giang, Bac Ninh and Hung Yen provinces to the east and south-east.
Hanoi means "the hinterland between the rivers" (Ha: river, Noi: interior). Hanoi's territory is washed by the Red River (the portion of the Red River embracing Hanoi is approximately 40km long) and its tributaries, but there are some other rivers flowing through the capital, including Duong, Cau, Ca Lo, Day, Nhue, Tich, To Lich and Kim Nguu.
Hanoi is situated in a tropical monsoon zone with two main seasons. During the dry season, which lasts from October to April, it is cold and there is very little rainfall, except from January to March, when the weather is still cold but there is some light rain. The wet season, from May to September, is hot with heavy rains and storms. The average annual temperature is 23.20C (73.70F) and the average annual rainfall is 1,800mm. The average temperature in winter is 17.20C (62.90F), but can go down to 80C (46.40F). The average temperature in summer is 29.20C (84.60F), but can reach up to 390C (102.20F).
Hanoi is a sacred land of Vietnam. In the 3rd century BC, Co Loa (actually belonging to Dong Anh District) was chosen as the capital of the Au Lac Nation of Thuc An Duong Vuong (the King Thuc). Hanoi later became the core of the resistance movements against the Northern invasions. Located in the middle of the Red River Delta, the town has gradually expanded to become a very populations and rich residential center. At different periods, Hanoi had been selected as the chief city of Vietnam under the Northern domination.In the autumn of Canh Tuat lunar years (1010), Ly Thai To, the founder of the Ly Dynasty, decided to transfer the capital from Hoa Lu to Dai La, and so he rebaptized it Thang Long (Soaring Dragon). The year 1010 then became an historical date for Hanoi and for the whole country in general. For about a thousand years, the capital was called Thang Long, then changing to Dong Do, Dong Kinh, and finally to Hanoi, in 1831. This sacred piece of land thereafter continued to be the theatre of many fateful events.
Throughout the thousand years of its eventful history, marked by destruction, wars and natural calamities, Hanoi still preserves many ancient architectural works including the Old Quarter and over 600 pagodas and temples. Famous sites include the One Pillar Pagoda (built in 1049), the Temple of Literature (built in 1070), Hanoi Citadel, Hanoi Opera House, President Ho Chi Minh's Mausoleum...
Hanoi also characteristically contains 18 beautiful lakes such as Hoan Kiem Lake, West Lake, and Truc Bach Lake..., which are the lungs of the city, with their surrounding gardens and trees providing a vital source of energy.
Many traditional handicrafts are also practiced in Hanoi including bronze molding, silver carving, lacquer, and embroidery. Hanoi has many famous traditional professional handicraft villages such as Bat Trang pottery village, Ngu Xa bronze casting village, Yen Thai glossy silk...
- By road: Hanoi is 93km from Ninh Binh, 102km from Haiphong, 153km from Thanh Hoa, 151km from Halong, 474km from Dien Bien Phu, 658km from Hue, 763km from Danang, and 1,710km from Ho Chi Minh City.
- By air: Noi Bai International Airport, over 35km from the city center, is one of the biggest airports of the country with various international and domestic routes. There are domestic flights from Hanoi to Danang, Dien Bien, Ho Chi Minh City, Hue, Nha Trang and international flights to many countries in over the world.
- By train: Hanoi Railway Station is Vietnam's main railway station. It is the starting point of five railway lines leading to almost every province in Vietnam.
Cuisine: Hanoi has rich food traditions and many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as phở, chả cá, bánh cuốn and cốm are thought to come from Hanoi.
Van Mieu (Temple of Literature) was built in 1070 under King Ly Thanh Tong’s reign to worship Confucius, Confucianism sages, scholars and had the function as the royal school. In 1076, King Ly Nhan Tong had Quoc Tu Giam built next to Van Mieu as a university for princes and mandarins’ sons. In 1253, King Tran Thai Tong had Quoc Tu Giam expended and accepted all excellent students. Under King Tran Minh Tong’s reign (1314 - 1329), Teacher Chu Van An was appointed as rector of Quoc Tu Giam and responsible for teaching princes. In 1785, King Le Hien Tong renamed Quoc Tu Giam to Thai Hoc House. In the early Nguyen Dynasty, Thai Hoc House was moved to Hue.
Ngoc Son Temple is on Hoan Kiem Lake, Hoan Kiem District, Ha Noi. Hoan Kiem Lake was already considered the most beautiful lake in Ha Noi when Ngoc Son Temple was built on an island in the 19th century. Initially, the temple was called Ngoc Son Pagoda and was later renamed Ngoc Son Temple, since temples are dedicated to saints.
Saint Van Xuong, considered to be one of the brightest stars in Viet Nam's literary and intellectual circles, was worshipped there. National hero Tran Hung Dao is also worshipped after he led the Vietnamese people to victory over the Yuan aggressors.
Quan Thanh Temple was built during the reign of King Ly Thai To (1010-1028). The temple was dedicated to Huyen Thien Tran Vo or the God who guarded and administered the north of the country. That is why it is also known as the Tran Vo Temple or the Temple of Quan Thanh Tran Vo.
The existing constructions originate from the last renovations that were made in the 19th century; these renovations included the triple gate, the yard, the front and central worshipping chambers, and the shrine. A bronze statue, nearly 4m in height and 4 tons in weight, was cast in 1677 and dedicated to the Saint Huyen Thien Tran Vo.
Bat Trang Pottery Village is located in the south east of Hanoi, passing Chuong Duong Bridge turns right and go about 10km along the dike of Red River. Bat Trang belongs to Bat Trang Commune, Gia Lam District, Ha Noi.
Characteristic: This is a pottery village with a half-millenary historic development.
Some decades recently, the vitality of this village is still blown up by the thousands of pottery-kiln on fire day and night.
Hoan Kiem Lake is located in the center of Ha Noi.
Hoan Kiem Lake also called Lake of the Restored Sword. The name Lake of the Restored Sword is derived from a legend.
Viet Nam National Museum of History was founded on 26 September 2011 on the basis of merging Viet Nam History Museum and
With 200,000 documents and artifacts displayed on an area of 4,000m², the museum includes two main exhibitions: the exhibition about Vietnamese history from Prehistoric age to August Revolution 1945 at 1 Trang Tien Street and the exhibition about Vietnamese history from the 19th century to present is at 216 Tran Quang Khai Street.
The museum is open daily from 8h00 to 12h00 and from 13h30 to 17h00 (except the first Monday of month).
Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Ha Noi
Location: It belongs to Dien Bien and Quan Thanh wards, Ba Dinh District, Ha Noi.
Characteristics: As the capital city of Vietnam under the Ly, Tran and Le dynasties, it houses a great deal of priceless cultural-historical relics of the ancient Thang Long imperial citadel. It was recognized as a world cultural heritage site by the UNESCO in August, 2010.
Hanoi Cathedral also known as Saint Joseph's Cathedral, was inaugurated on Christmas Day 1886, two years after its construction. Its design is similar to the architecture of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
Many catholic rituals have been held there. A ritual ceremony dedicated to Jesus Christ is held in this cathedral every year on March 19.
One-Pillar Pagoda is on Chua Mot Cot Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi. The One-Pillar Pagoda is a cultural and historic relic, one of the attractive tourist spots in Hanoi with its unique architectural features.
President Ho Chi Minh's Residence, located in a large garden at the back of the Presidential Palace is a nice road covered with pebbles and bordered with mango trees that lead to a stilt house, Uncle Ho's residence and office from May 1958 until his death. The perfume of jasmine flowers and roses is omnipresent.